Camera obscura, precedent for photography
Zoetrope and other early mechanical inventions work on the persistence of vision optical illusion, where we see movement in between a series of still images flashing faster than a certain rate.
1870, Eadward Muybridge uses multiple cameras to capture motion
1889, first commercial film roll is produced, leading to Thomas Edison's motion picture camera in 1891.
1895, Lumiere brothers invent first portable camera
Before 20th Century, film is considered experimental medium, visual art.
The introduction of sound in the 1920s leads the way for the popularization of the medium.
Shoot the Piano Player (1960)
Midnight Cowboy (1969)
1967, Sony release Portapak, commercial portable video recorder
Nam June Paik, first video artist